It is believed that the Hindu calendar is built around lunar months that correspond with the lunar phases. In a single year, it is comprised of twelve months that are 29.5 days, resulting in the whole of 354 days. The inconsistency is that the date for every festival shifts back 11 days every year. To correct this, an additional jump month can be added in three years. The Hindu calendar, therefore, is lunisolar with a precise calendar and an estimated year.
The year, which begins at Makara Sankranti, which marks the sun’s entry into Capricorn splits into two parts with six different seasons. There are a variety of methods to count when it is the New Year; the most common is the day that follows the new moon of the month of Chaitra or in Gujarat the day that follows Diwali the new moon. Different eras are utilized to determine the number of years; among them is the Vikrami era which began with the coronation ceremony of King Vikramaditya 57 BCE. Then there is the Shaka Era which runs beginning in the year 78 CE. In religious ceremonies, the priest usually announces dates in accordance with KaliYuga, (see Kala: Time). For the three methods, the year 2000 corresponds to 2057 1922, and 5102 although the latter number is the subject of some disagreement.
The diagram depicts the Hindu calendar, including months, and the associated celebrations. It’s a bit approximate since the exact dates are based on the Gregorian calendar, with a month that falls between the earliest and most recent dates. Certain festivals are determined by the sun’s light alone, and the Gregorian dates are exactly the same (or within a single day) every year.
Every month you will find the two “fortnights,” each consisting of 15 “lunar days.” Although the lunar and solar days technically start at different times. Each lunar day is assigned a specific lunar day, which is numbered between one and fifteen one of which is those with bright fortnights (waxing moon). The dark fortnight (waning moon). Months last for 29.5 days, and sometimes a day may be omitted. For instance, during one month, that fourth day in the month of waxing the moon might be followed by the sixth day.
There are two major calendars. For North India, the month typically starts with the full moon, and for South India with the new moon. Festival days are still observed on the same day or very close to it, however, the names of the month could differ. For instance, Krishna’s birthday is on the 8th day of the moon’s dark In the North this falls within the month known as Bhadra In the South it is in Shravana.
It is split into 7 consecutive days, each corresponds to one of the seven planets exactly like they are in the West. There is no day that is special however, each day is associated with one particular god. For instance, Monday is typically connected to Shiva, and Tuesday is associated with Hanuman. Hindus can observe rituals of fasting and praying to worship a particular god on the same date of the week.
The day generally begins around dawn, or at the time that the astronomical and astrological methods are employed. It is split into fifteen muhurtas which last for approximately one hour, while the night is also divided. In the past, Brahmanas are known to chant Gayatri Mantras at the time of sunrise or noon, and at sunset as they are considered to be particularly significant periods during the days. The first 2 muhurtas (about an hour) of the day before sunrise is believed to be the most favorable particularly for religious practices. Also, check out today panchangam to know the auspicious muhurat to start your business or any work.